We are constantly asked questions about the street dog issue, both by people who think dogs a nuisance and by dog-lovers. These are the most common ones.

Q1. Why are there so many street dogs here anyway? Why aren’t there any in London and New York?
The urban environment in India has two features that encourage street animal populations – exposed garbage and slums. Neither of these exists in developed countries.

Street dogs are scavengers and garbage provides an ample source of food for them. In the absence of this food source, dogs would not be able to survive on the streets. Moreover in India and most other south-east Asian countries, street dogs are also kept as free-roaming pets by slum-dwellers and street-dwellers such as ragpickers.

There are street dogs in developed countries too – but they are abandoned pets, or feral dogs (meaning dogs who were once pets but now live like street dogs). They are unable to survive or breed on city streets since they can find nothing to eat. Most are captured, housed in animal shelters and rehomed.

Q2. Why did the municipal corporation stop killing dogs?
Mass killing of dogs as a population control measure was started by the British in the 19th Century. It was continued on a large scale (up to 50,000 dogs killed every year) after Independence by the municipal authorities all over India, with the aims of eradicating human rabies deaths and the street dog population. By 1993, it was admitted to be a complete failure, since human rabies deaths had actually increased, and the dog population was also perceptibly growing.

Studies by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Animal Welfare Board of India (Ministry of Environment & Forests) show that dog population control measures which work in developed countries are unsuccessful in third world developing countries, since urban conditions are very different. The urban environment here encourages breeding of street dogs, so no matter how many dogs were killed, they were quickly replaced by more.

That’s why in January 1994, the killing programme was replaced by mass sterilisation of street dogs. The sterilisation programme is carried out by non-government organisations in collaboration with the municipal corporation.

Q3. If street dog population control is the issue, wouldn’t it make more sense to kill the dogs or take them away?
Removal or killing of street dogs seems to be the most obvious method of controlling the population, but it has actually proved to be completely useless. This is because even when large numbers of dogs are killed, the conditions that sustain dog populations remain unchanged. Dogs are territorial and each one lives in its own specific area. When they are removed, the following things happen:

  • The food source – garbage – is still available in abundance, so dogs from neighbouring areas enter the vacant territories.

  • Pups born and growing up in the surrounding areas also move in to occupy these vacant niches.

  • The few dogs who escape capture and remain behind attack these newcomers, leading to frequent and prolonged dog-fights.

  • Since they are not sterilised, all the dogs who escape capture continue to mate, leading to more fighting.

  • In the course of fights, dogs often accidentally redirect their aggression towards people passing by, so many humans get bitten.

  • Females with pups become aggressive and often attack pedestrians who come too close to their litter.

  • They breed at a very high rate (two litters of pups a year). It has been estimated that two dogs can multiply to over 300 in three years.

Since dogs who are removed are quickly replaced, the population does not decrease at all. The main factors leading to dog aggression – migration and mating – continue to exist, so the nuisance factor remains.

Since removal of dogs actually increases dog-related problems, the effective solution is to sterilise the dogs, vaccinate them against rabies and put them back in their own areas.

Q4. But what’s the point of putting the dogs back after sterilisation? Doesn’t the problem just continue?
No, when dogs are sterilised and put back in their own area, the population and the problems caused by dogs both reduce. Here’s how:

  • Each dog guards its own territory and does not allow new dogs to enter.

  • Since they are all neutered, they no longer mate or multiply.

  • The main factors leading to dog aggression – migration and mating - are eliminated. So dog-fights reduce dramatically.

  • With the decrease in fighting, bites to humans also decrease.

  • Since females no longer have pups to protect, this source of dog aggression is also eliminated.

  • Over a period of time, as the sterilised dogs die natural deaths, the population is greatly reduced.

Please remember, there is NO overnight solution to the street dog issue. It is simply not possible to wish all the dogs away. With sterilisation, the population becomes stable, non-breeding and non-rabid and decreases over time. It also becomes largely non-aggressive. On the other hand, when dogs are removed or killed, new dogs keep entering an area and the population is continuously changing, unstable, aggressive, multiplies at a high rate and carries rabies. Which method makes more sense?

Q5. Why don’t you dog-lovers just keep all these street dogs in your own homes?
Dog-lovers have not created the street dog population. They merely try to minimise it through sterilisation, and to keep it rabies-free through vaccination. Moreover, even if a lot of street dogs got adopted, the basic problems of vacant territories and dog replacement would remain.

(By the same logic, people who love children could be asked to keep the entire population of street children in their own homes!)

Incidentally, our organisation does promote the adoption of pariahs and mongrels - so if someone you know is planning to buy a pure-breed dog, try and persuade him to adopt a street instead. Although it won’t provide a large-scale solution, you will have the satisfaction of knowing you got one dog off the street!

Q6. Can’t some of the dogs be released in another place?
Since they would be entering the territory of other dogs, there would be a lot of fighting in the area in which they are released, and in the process more humans would get bitten. Their original territories would also be left vacant, so new dogs would enter… and the street dog problem would go on forever.

Q7. What about rabies? Don’t they all spread rabies?
Only rabid dogs spread rabies. Healthy ones don’t.

The World Health Organisation recommends mass vaccination of dogs as the only effective way to eradicate human rabies. Mass vaccination has led to a significant decrease in human rabies deaths in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Jaipur and Mumbai itself. Recently Fethiye in southwestern Turkey implemented this programme and dog-related problems have reduced.

The sterilisation programme includes anti-rabies vaccination. Our organisation also annually vaccinates a large number of street dogs on site. Between 1993 and 2005, we have vaccinated over 37,000 street dogs.

For more information, read our leaflet on rabies.

Q8. But didn’t dog-killing help in controlling rabies?
Dog-killing was ineffective as a rabies eradication measure, since the catchers only captured healthy dogs and the rabid ones were left to spread the disease. Official sources also claim that half of human rabies deaths are caused by unvaccinated pets, so once again killing street dogs is of no use.

The killing method has failed to control rabies in developing countries worldwide – including Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Cambodia, North Korea, Bhutan, Afghanistan, Jordan, Syria, Yemen, Bangladesh, Nepal, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

Q9. I sometimes see dogs with skin problems and hairless patches – aren’t they all rabid?
Skin problems and fur fall are not symptoms of rabies. Rabies affects the central nervous system, not the skin. Probably the confusion occurred because there is a skin disease called scabies. Strangely, this question is asked quite often in India.

Q10. How exactly do you sterilise the dogs? Are both males and females sterilised?
Both males and females need to be sterilised, because while the females actually give birth to more dogs, the males are more aggressive and have much higher nuisance value. Complaints from the public are almost always about males.

Both males and females are surgically sterilised at our centre, under general anaesthesia, by qualified veterinary surgeons. The process is also called neutering. In the case of females the ovaries and uterus are removed, and in the case of males the testicles are removed. Therefore both mating and breeding cease. The dogs are kept for post-operative care for a period of 8 days and then released in their original location.

Q11. Ok, so the birth rate of dogs comes down over time…but what about dog-bites?
As explained earlier, most dog aggression occurs during mating time, as dogs cross territories to mate and fight with other dogs whose areas they enter. Humans passing by get accidentally bitten in the course of these dog-fights. This problem ends when all the dogs from a neighbourhood are sterilised.

As testosterone levels come down after sterilisation, male dogs also become less aggressive. Street dog females are usually aggressive only when they have puppies to protect, so with sterilisation this problem ends as well.

Q12. Dogs bark and howl the whole night – how can you solve that problem?
Barking and howling occur during dog-fights, which take place at their mating time, so with sterilisation the problem disappears. Dogs bark when new dogs enter their territory, and as these migrations cease with sterilisation, the barking largely ends too. They also howl when they live and move in packs. When the dog population dwindles in size, pack behaviour also declines.

Q13. How would I know if a dog has been sterilised?
Our organisation puts an identification tattoo on the dog’s left inner thigh, giving the month and year of sterilisation. Other animal welfare groups put different identification marks – some brand the dog’s outer thigh and one organisation cuts a triangular notch in the ear.

Q14. The dog problem may have reduced in South Mumbai – but there are still so many dogs in the suburbs. What’s being done about that?
The human population and the number of high-rise buildings are growing very fast in the suburbs, leading to suddenly increased amounts of garbage, leading to a large population of street dogs.

Our organisation has been working consistently for eleven years in South Mumbai, which is why the dog population has reduced there. Animal welfare organisations working in the suburbs started operations much later, and will need some time to show results.

Q15. How did street dogs originate anyway?
India has long been home to the Pariah Dog, one of the world’s oldest canine breeds. In slightly varied forms, the Pariah Dog has existed for over 14,000 years all over Asia and North Africa. Most rural families own at least one. As villages and rural areas turned into cities, these dogs became street dogs. As explained earlier, they survive by eating garbage and are also kept as pets by slum-dwellers.

The street dog population is regularly increased by callous owners who abandon their pets on the street. Many irresponsible pure-breed owners also allow their pets to mate with street dogs, producing a large population of mix-breeds or mongrels.

Q16. What is the difference between street dogs and mongrels?
Street dog is merely a legal term indicating an animal who is ownerless and homeless. It does not refer to the breed of the dog. When pure-breedsare lost or abandoned on the street by their owners, they also become street dog.

A mongrel is a dog of mixed or indeterminate breed. Both the terms street and mongrel are commonly – and erroneously – used to denote a Pariah Dog. Pariahs are a distinct breed of dog, coming under the category of primitive or aboriginal breeds. Since they are not commercially recognised, this fact is not widely known.

In India, most street dogs are Pariah Dogs or mongrels. Once a Pariah or mongrel gets adopted as a house-pet, it ceases to be a street dog.

Q17. My building society wants to remove all the dogs from the premises and release them in another area – is that legal?
No, it is absolutely illegal and punishable. Under the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act only the staff of the BMC or people authorised by them can capture street dogs. The guidelines for dog population control approved by the Mumbai High Court in 1998 also prohibit the permanent removal of street dogs from their original location.

Q18. Some people go around feeding street dogs. Doesn’t that increase the street dog problem?
No. Street dog populations are created and sustained by garbage, not by handouts from kind-hearted ladies! In fact, people who feed dogs generally get them vaccinated and neutered as well, so the population would actually decrease where dogs are being fed. However, feeding should be done in a responsible manner so that it does not cause any disturbance to the public.

Q19. Isn’t it sad that street dogs have to eat garbage?
Archaeological studies indicate that wolves started living near human settlements so that they could eat the garbage thrown outside. Dogs evolved from these wolves, and have always been scavengers. Unlike humans, they do not view garbage with disgust. In fact, even a well-fed pedigreed dog will often make trips to the dustbin when his owners aren’t looking. Of course, eating garbage has its risks, since once in a while a dog may eat something poisonous – but many street dogs lead long and healthy lives with no other source of food.

Q20. What should I do if I want the dogs in my area sterilised?
You should request the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, preferably in writing, to pick up the dogs and hand them over to the nearest animal welfare organisation for sterilisation. State clearly that you want them returned to the same area afterwards. If you like, contact us and we will arrange for them to be picked up.

Q21. If I want street dogs vaccinated against rabies what should I do?
We can vaccinate them if they are within Mumbai city limits. Contact us.

Q22. If I see a sick or injured dog, what should I do?
Our first-aid groups can treat wounds and skin problems on site. If the injury or illness is serious, call the SPCA on 24137518.

Q23. Do I have to pay anything if I want any of those services?
Our organisation does not charge for any services. However, check with individual organisations regarding their policies.



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